Manga Vectorization and Manipulation with Procedural Simple Screentone
  Chih-Yuan Yao     Shih-Hsuan Hung     Guo-Wei Li     I-Yu Chen     Yu-Chi Lai  
Yao, C.-Y.; Hung, S.-H.; Li, G.-W.; Chen I-Y. &Y.-C. Lai, “Manga Vectorization and Manipulation with Procedural Simple Screentone.”, IEEE Transaction on Computer Graphics and Visualization,  Volume: 23, Issue: 2, Pages 1070 - 1084, DOI 10.1109/TVCG.2016.2525774, 2017 Submitted material web page

Manga are a popular artistic form around the world, and artists use simple line drawing and screentone to create all kinds of interesting productions. Vectorization is helpful to digitally reproduce these elements for proper content and intention delivery on electronic devices. Therefore, this study aims at transforming scanned Manga to a vector representation for interactive manipulation and real-time rendering with arbitrary resolution. Our system first decomposes the patch into rough Manga elements including possible borders and shading regions using adaptive binarization and screentone detector. We classify detected screentone into simple and complex patterns: our system extracts simple screentone properties for refining screentone borders, estimating lighting, compensating missing strokes inside screentone regions, and later resolution independently rendering with our procedural shaders. Our system treats the others as complex screentone areas and vectorizes them with our proposed line tracer which aims at locating boundaries of all shading regions and polishing all shading borders with the curve-based Gaussian refiner. A user can lay down simple scribbles to cluster Manga elements intuitively for the formation of semantic components, and our system vectorizes these components into shading meshes along with embedded Bezier curves as a unified foundation for consistent manipulation including pattern manipulation, deformation, and lighting addition. Our system can real-time and resolution independently render the shading regions with our procedural shaders and drawing borders with the curve-based shader. For Manga manipulation, the proposed vector representation can be not only magnified without artifacts but also deformed easily to generate interesting results.


author={C. Y. Yao and S. H. Hung and G. W. Li and I. Y. Chen and R. Adhitya and Y. C. Lai}, 
journal={IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics}, 
title={Manga Vectorization and Manipulation with Procedural Simple Screentone}, 


We thank Pin-Ci Yeh and International Games System (IGS) to provide us the Manga patches for study, participants of all user studies, and the support of IGS Inc. This work was also supported by NSC-104-2221-E-011-029-MY3, NSC103-2221-E-011-114-MY2, NSC-104-2218-E-011-006, NSC-103-2218-E-011-014, NSC-104-2221-E-011-092 and NSC-103-2221-E-011-076, Taiwan.